OOoh, turns out I can answer this one.
The route I'm taking-
With a relevant degree one can do a 1-year post-grad in teaching. This is geared to what you want to be teaching. For me this will be plain old primary teaching, for others it would be high school geoggers etc (with a relevant degree). You can also do this one year post-grad alongside the degree but it makes for little/no social life. This route is for teachers in Scotland and I would argue is much more straightforward and easy than the english/welsh way.
My mum did her Initial Teachers Training way back in the seveties in Bristol, but the application process remains the same- You need to have passed O-level or GCSE (with a minimum grade C) Maths and English, and a degree in any subject (If not, a teaching degree is available over 3 years). You can get subject training if the degree you hold is not relevant to the subject you want to teach- this usually involves a year at uni/college.
From this point forward you have to choose if you want to be a primary school teacher, secondary or further education. Primary school training is generally full-time only as there is such a shortage of teachers, but secondary and further can be done part time. After completing the training and spending 18/24 weeks in a school, you're qualified and can go and find a job.
My mum didn't have a degree when she started training as a teacher, but more funding is allocated to people who express a wish to become a qualified teacher. I've just been accepted for my Post-Grad (which doesn't start for another 2 years), and it is the easiest way to get a qualification quickly.
The Oxford Poly is the best place to do the ITT (Initial Teachers Training), according to my mum. I don't know if the place still exists.
Past furter education, Higher education teaching places are usually allocated to students who have done well in PhD courses, teachers from schools who are regarded as subject experts, and for 1st year uni courses, to people who have just completed their degree and had a prof who took a shine to them. The salaries for a Uni professor range from £15,000 to £100,000. Whereas a full time state teacher will earn £30,000 (£34,000 in greater london).